Skuola Screenshot Piece Christos Bouras is Professor in the University of Patras, Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics. Also he is a scientific advisor of Research Unit 6 in Computer Technology Institute and Press - Diophantus, Patras, Greece. His research interests include 5G and Beyond Networks, Analysis of Performance of Networking and Computer Systems, Computer Networks and Protocols, Mobile and Wireless Communications, Telematics and New Services, QoS and Pricing for Networks and Services, e-learning, Networked Virtual Environments and WWW Issues. He has extended professional experience in Design and Analysis of Networks, Protocols, Telematics and New Services. He has published more than 450 papers in various well-known refereed books, conferences and journals. He is a co-author of 9 books in Greek and editor of 2 in English. He has been member of editorial board for international journals and PC member and referee in various international journals and conferences. He has participated in R&D projects.

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New wireless standards such as 3GPP's High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) achieve considerable advancements in system capacity and throughput, but the deployment of macro cells results in high operational and capital expenditures. A way to increase cost-capacity of the networks is to deploy a large number of smaller and cheaper cells, i.e. femtocells.

Femtocells will improve coverage in indoors, contributing to offload the macro network, yet very important considering that a large amount of wireless traffic is originated in indoors. In addition, femtocells will use a cheaper backhaul connection: internet.

Not surprisingly, the case of femtocells has gained enormous support from the industry since it can represent a more cost-effective solution for wireless network operators than traditional deployments.

Deployment of femtocells represents a promising solution to increase cost-capacity benefits for network operators and provide higher data rates to end-users. Femtocells are conceived to provide indoor wireless access to a cellular network through a Home Base Station, which is connected via internet to the operator's core network, helping to improve coverage in indoors, offload the macrocell and reduce costs for operators.

However, large scale deployment of femtocells can severely interfere with the existing macrocell within which they are deployed, particularly when operating in co-channel or in immediate adjacent channels with respect to the macrocell and when using a closed access policy. For instance, macrocell coverage holes in the downlink will appear, i.e. zones in the vicinity of a home base station where interference from home base station signals will prevent macrocell users to receive the desired service from the macrocell network.

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